Hindu varna system highlights these castes as high castes and makes them favorable in higher social status due to favorable social norms, values, and laws. Maskey, Kayastha, Hada, Patravamsh, Rajvamshi, Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc. Despite the forceful integration by the state into the pan-Hindu social structure, the traditionally non-Hindu groups and tribes do not necessarily adhere to the customs and practices of the caste system.  In terms of education, 88.0% of Khas Brahmins & Chhetris, and Newars have access to school, 12.0% have never been to school. The groups are delineated using language, ethnic identity or the caste system in Nepal. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. (Census, 2001), In recent times, following the overthrow of the Nepali monarchy and move towards a federal republic, ethnicity and caste have taken center stage – the indigenous peoples (Adivasi Janajati) who make up a third of the country having been guaranteed rights that have not yet been fulfilled. With the advent of Khas domination since Nepal’s unification by Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1769 A.D. the center of power shifted from the Newar noble families to these power -and land- hungry rural nobility whose core values were concentration of power at home and conquest abroad. If you agree to these terms, please click here. They have become major decision makers in the bureaucracy of Nepal has become crystal clear. This general term refers in some contexts only to the upper-status divisions of the western Khas group, the Brahmans (Khae(n) Bahun) and the Khae(n) Chhetri) but in other contexts also may include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kami (blacksmiths), Damai (tailors), Sarki (shoemakers and leatherworkers). Kathmandu: Ministry of Population and Environment, HMG, Nepal. [note 1], Teej celebrated by women of Khas community, Banras/Shakya Buddhist priests of Newar group, Children from isolated Danuwar ethnolinguistic group, Limbus playing traditional chyabrung, Ilam, Nepal, Senior offering Dashain Tika; a feature of Khas Parbattia community, Khas man of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India (1868-1875), List of ethnic caste-groups in Nepal by population, Pages 191/192 of the total pdf or pages 156/157 in the scanned material shows Nepalese castes/ethnic groups, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), "Economic and social structures that may explain the recent conflicts in the Terai of Nepal", "Population Monograph of Nepal Volume II (Social Demography)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnic_groups_in_Nepal&oldid=986920376, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 19:35. Nepal Population Report, 2002. Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. bahun( Mishra), Singh( rajput),baniya (sah/shah), yadav and koeri are most dominating caste among madeshi-aryan community.These various cultural groups belong to five distinct language groups: Maithili, Bajika, Bhojpuri, and Awadhi. Copyright ©, 2019. Members of this group are touchable and water acceptable. Your email address will not be published. are other myriads of non-Jyapu occupational castes who perform highly specialized hereditary occupations. The most common Newari surnames could be Shrestha, Manandhar, Shakya etc but you might be surprised to know there are more than 115 surnames in this caste. Conversely, those Khas (North Indian Indo-Aryan) groups untouchable to the Partya Brahmans and Chetri themselves are also untouchable for the Newars. It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal. The Chatharīya do follow many traditions very similar to those of the Khas-Chhetris. , Participation of Khas-Brahmins in Civil Service is 41.3% in spite of its population size of less than 29.98%. Rajopadhyaya and higher Shrestha clans also try to avoid “Sa-Gotra” marriages; marrying someone of the same gotra. The negotiated end to this war forced King Gyanendra to abdicate in 2008. Some of the prominent sub-castes within this group are Maharjan, Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Singh, Prajapati, etc. Much of the previously animist/tribal Khas population of the western Nepal region acquired the 'Chhetri' status in the 1850s with the proclamation by the Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, making Chhetris the most populous caste/tribe of Nepal. From a gender perspective, Newari women are the most literate and lead in every sector. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. (1) Gubhāju-Bare, consists of two sub-groups, viz. In this process the left outs were oppressed class (Dalits), women, the poorest of the poor, powerless and the second class citizen and indigenous nationalities (Adivasi Janajatis). The Sae(n) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. In 2001 the CBS recorded only nine groups in the caste-origin Hill Hindu groups. Similarly, the Janajati has 36.0% of the total population of the country, has representation of 7.1%.
Chārtharīya Shrestha are even lowered in the social status and consists of those from non-Srestha background who try to emulate or establish the Srestha (Chatharīya and Pañchthariya) status by pretending their norms or simply, in many cases, adopting the general caste-denoting surname like ‘Shrestha’ or in other instances ‘Joshi’, ‘Singh’, ‘Achaju’, or ‘Pradhan’. According to the 2001 national census, ninety two different living languages are spoken in Nepal (a ninety third category was "unspecified"). They were the primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. Other rules further restrict social inter-mingling between the castes, but they tend to be treated more casually.
This latter group may consider all Newar people to be equally Matawali and other inhabitant Janajati of Nepal, all essentially of the Vaishya varna, but this is not the perception of the Newars themselves. Newar lowest occupational castes – Kulu/Dom, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala, etc. Also listed is the approximate percentages  of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. Recent research has also shown that when it comes to Nepali people's impressions of social change, "Poverty, Human Resources and Region" explain more of the variation than "Ethnicity, Caste or Religious belonging" – i.e. The population of Newars is around 5%, but its occupancy in Civil Service is more than one-thirds (33.2%), the population of Khas-Chhetris constitutes 17.6% but its participation is mere 14.7%. For the non-Mongoloid hill ‘Khas’ tribe of the west who are of North-Indian Indo-Aryan heritage, and are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders, the term Partya or hill-dweller is used in polite reference. Exclusive religious preference disappears from the next occupational caste which consists of people who form the majority population among the Newars – the farmers and agriculturalists – who are collectively called the Jyapu. Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, Singh, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc. Deepening Democracy: International Labour Organisation Convention 169 and Nepal's Democratic Transition, Nepal: Towards a Democratic Republic: Caste, Ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal, Material from this site has been borrowed for this article with the permission of Dr. Vepachedu, Interview with Ian Martin: Caste-Based Discrimination in Nepal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caste_system_in_Nepal&oldid=985350608, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manandhar/Sāyami/Teli (oil-pressers and brewers), Khadgi, Naye, Kasai (butchers and musicians), Dyala, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala (sweepers, fishermen), "Namasinya Matwali" (Non-enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), Newar Hindu Vaishya-equivalent Panchthariya Srēsthas and Newar Buddhists – Gubhaju/Baré (, "Masinya Matwali" (Enslavable Alcohol Drinkers), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Naparne" (Water-unacceptable but touchable), "Pani Na Chalne Chhoichhito Haalnu Parne" (Water-unacceptable and untouchable), Nancy E. Levine.
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